İşlevselcilik Açısından Kuyu Motifinin Türk Kültürü, Edebiyatı ve Sinemasına Yansımaları

Vikikaynak, özgür kütüphane
Gezinti kısmına atla Arama kısmına atla
folk/ed. Derg, 2020; 26(2):281-296
DOI: 10.22559/folklor.1207

İşlevselcilik Açısından Kuyu Motifinin Türk Kültürü, Edebiyatı ve Sinemasına Yansımaları


Reflection of Well Theme to Turkish Folk Culture, Literature and Movie Theatres From the Point of Functionalism


Nursel Işık*


Öz

Kuyu, teknolojik imkânların sınırlı olduğu kırsal bölgelerde, suya ulaşmayı kolaylaştıran önemli kaynaklardandır. Bu kaynağın Türk kültüründe, düşünce ve yazındünyasında gerçek ve mecazî anlamlarda yer edindiği görülür. Kuyu motifinin,günlük hayatta kullanılan deyim ve atasözlerinde, mâni ve türkülerde, masallarda,efsanelerde, menkıbelerde, klasik şiirde, çağdaş edebiyatta maddî anlamının dışında, güçlü bir sembol olarak kullanıldığı da bir gerçektir. Kültür ve edebiyatımızdabu kadar çok kullanımı olan kuyu motifinin, Türk sinemasına yansımaları da paralel bir doğrultuda olmuştur. Drama ve korku filmlerinde, kuyunun maddî, efsanevîve psikolojik yönlerine vurgu yapıldığı görülür. Makale, kuyu motifinin halk kültürü ve Türk edebiyatından sinemaya aktarılmasını işlevsel açıdan ele almıştır. Çalışmada, maddî bir unsurun görünürde işlevlerini yitirdiği düşünülmesine rağmen,bağlam değiştirmesi sonucu yeni işlevler kazanması kuyu motifi üzerinden analizedilmeye çalışılmıştır. Çalışma sonucunda kuyunun, su kaynağı olmasının yanısıra sosyalleşme aracı olması, tabulara kaynak oluşturması, kişinin hatalarını düzeltmesinde şahitlik ederek insanlara faydalı olması, kutsal kabul edilen kişilerinyaşamında dönüm noktası olması, imkânsızlıkları ve çaresizlikleri anlatmak için bir sembol olması, Klasik edebiyatta sevgilinin güzelliğini anlatmak için bir araç olması, çağdaş yazın ve sinemada “ölümün, cinselliğin, geçmişin, bilinmeyenin” ve karmaşık pek çok duygunun anlatılmasını sağlayan bir metafor olması gibi çok çeşitli işlevleri olduğu tespit edilmiştir.

Anahtar sözcükler: kuyu, halk inancı, kültür, edebiyat, Türk sineması


Abstract

Well is one of the important sources to reach water in rural areas where technological opportunuties are limited in. It’s seen that, this source has a place in Turkish culture, in the world of literature and thought in both real and figurative meanings. The reality is well theme has been using as a powerful symbol in daily life idioms and proverbs, mânis and folk songs, tales, mythes, legends, classical poems, modern literature apart from it’s worldly meaning. Therefore, the reflection of well theme to Tukish movie theatre has a parallel direction with its’ common using in both Turkish culture and literature. It is seen that; material, legendary and psychological aspects of well are emphasized in dramas and horror movies. In this article, the transfer of well theme from folk culture and Turkish literature to movie theatre is examined with a functionalist point. It is tried to be analysed over the well theme that; although there is a thought of a materialistic factor has lost its’ function apparently, with the changing of context, it has gained new functions. With this research besides its’ water resource, these functions of well are determined; it is a socialising means, a source for taboo, useful as a witness for people who fix their faults, a milestone in the life of people who are seen as holy figures, a symbol to describe impossibilities and desperations. Also, it is a way to descibe beauty of lover in classical literature, has various functions as a metaphor to impress the “death, sexuality, past, unknown” and complicated feelings in both modern literature and movie theatre.

Keywords: well, folk belief, culture, literature, Turkish movie theatre

Extended summary

In the article, it is tried to determine that functions of well theme in beliefs of Turkishfolks, literature and movie theatre. With its’ concrete function as a water supply, the issues ofspiritual needs which provides well theme is analysed. In terms of it’s representation both as aconcrete object and as an intangable meanings, the well theme’s visible and invisible functionscan be determined with “functional theory”. For this reason, works of Petr Bogatyrev andBronislaw Malinowski have became useful to give information about functional theory. Thework of Bogatyrev which named The Function of Folk Costume in Moravian Slovakia andMalinowski’s A Scientific Theory of Culture are taken base for the research. Bogatyrev saysin his work, that Slovak traditional costumes have magical, religious, erotic etc. meaningsexcept with the needs for dressing. In this article, the possible invisible functions of wellare researched based on Bogatyrev’s work. It is indicated that, the function is not a notionwhich contains only concrete needs but also it contains divine activities in loco citato ofMalinowski. Based on this, it is tried to be determined that the role of the well for supplyreligious requirements besides it supples concrete needs. In this work, primarily, the well theme is searched in terms of Turkish mythologies andfolk beliefs. It is determined that, the theme is used in Turkish mythology, connected withwater soul and the demonic creatures who is believed consists and named as “Kuyu Kızı”(Well Girl). The theme is used like a gate which gives opportunity to pass through the worldfrom another world in Altai Shamanism. In islamic sources there is such an informationthat, after he is thrown away to a well, Prophet Yusuf swiched between dimensions withthe help of divine power and he was teached by God with knowledge and literacy andalso dream interpretation.In sufism, the well represents a gate which provides to reach ownsoul of people. In the work, there is also a myth about role of the well to show up ney (reedflüte). Furthermore, myths about seeing the well as a closelipped and a witness for importantsecrets, folk implementations are narrated. Well has become a source for various taboos, folkbeliefs and implementations related with beliefs.

Idiom, proverb, manî, folk song, tale in Turkish folk literature, the knowledge of welltheme is used to describe different meanings is determined. Also in motif, idioms andproverbs “desperation and trap” meanings exist. Is has seen that well head is used as a wordform in manîs and folk songs to begin narration and furthermore, is has seen that, the placeis described as a meeting place. In folk tales, the well theme had used with many differentways. Wells that a gate to heaven or to another worlds, wells with magical waters, holy wells,wishing wells, wells which full of oil or wine are themes in Turkish tales and in world tales.In tales, well has a function as a gate and food supplier.

In both classical Turkish literature and modern Turkish literature, wells have gottencontemporary and wealthy functions with their function in traditional life. Well theme isa tool to describe magical beauty of lover in classical Turkish poem. The theme is usedto describe people’s psychology beside it’s traditional usage in modern Turkish literature.This circumstance is analysed over three works in Turkish literature which exist in it welltheme. The first work analysed is Bir Kara Derin Kuyu written by Nezihe Meriç. In thenovel, hardship in life like oppression days, tension in political life, economic difficultiesare described over a dark well metaphore which doesn’t exist but existence of its’ feeling.Second work is a novel written by Bülent Dizdarlı, named Kuyu Mezarları Ülkesi. The novelis about incidents which occur on the ground of tension between Turkish and Greek andcorpses who is killed and thrown away the well during the incidents from the end of 1950’suntil 1970’s on Cyprus Island. Well’s head is covered to hide corpses and it has a corpsesshelterer function in the novel. The well is showed as a concrete existence. The final novelwhich analysed is Kuyu/İç ve Hiç written by Ünit İnatçı. The novel which is attributed recenthistory’s incidents occur in Cyprus, different meanings of well are used apart from buryingcorpses. Well that his father’s body in there according to the thoughts of novel hero Ahmet,expresses negative and dark feelings. The novel hero expresses the desire of digging a welland burying the psychological dilemmas in his soul and also in his thoughts and with those itis shown that well has a function to hide undesireble thinks in the novel. The prove of sexualfunction of well is thinking Ahmet a woman’s vagina who stands before him to a well top.In addititon to that, the fact that the woman compared her womb to the well with a corpseshows that the archetypal reference was made. At the end of the novel, Ahmet, who entered the well he dug in his garden, came out of the well with a child’s cry, in a sense, its rebirth.Well acts as a mother’s womb.

Finally, functions of well theme in Turkish movie theatre is analysed over various moviesin the article. Tütün Zamanı (1959) written by Necati Cumalı and movie with the same name,is the first movie which is analysed. The well theme in this work is so obvious as a concreteway. Leads, Zeliş and Cemal, meet with each other on the well head and decided to marry.In this part, can be seen the social function of the well. Knowledge of essential functionof the well as a water supply is given with scene that taking villager water from the well.Countrywomen bear tales about the leads again, on the well head and well has a functionfor socialized. Second movie is Kuyu (1968) written and directed by Metin Erksan. Fromthe begining of it’s generic, in this film, well theme has become a metaphor to represent allthe hardness. The lead, Fatma, was abducted by Osman for many times and was obligatedto endure his oppressions, because of this situation it shows that there is a well withoutwalls and Fatma is in there. Osman’s desire for water, entering the well to kill his thirst andwas killed here, indicates that the well has a sexual identity and reference to the motherarchetype. Here the well acts as the woman’s genitals. The last movie analysed is the shortfilm Kuyu (2017). This film conveys the difficulties experienced by trans individuals throughthe actress, a trans person. While the stifling life conditions experienced by the hero create awell feeling, the corpse of her found in a well at the end of the film and shows that the motifwas used to meet a concrete meaning. Apart from these films, it was determined that the wellmotif was used with the space function that hosts demonic beings in horror films.

In conclusion, well theme has used in Turkish beliefs, folk culture, folk literature, modernTurkish literature and movie theatre are parallel with each other. In the works of new literatureand cinema, different functions have been added to the well as well as traditional functions.As a result of the examination, the well motif: It has been determined that it has the functionsof being a source of water, being used as a means of punishment, gate connecting the differentworlds, education and adulthood, being confidant, symbolizing negative thoughts, being afemale genitalia, being a mother’s womb, meeting and socializing.

Kaynaklar Altıner, B. (2005). Metin Erksan sineması. İstanbul: Pan.

Aylanç, M. (2017) Kıbrıs Türk romanı eserler sözlüğü. Ankara: Uluslararası Kıbrıs Üniversitesi.

Bayat, F. (2012). Türk mitolojik sistemi 2. (2. bs.). İstanbul: Ötüken.

Beydili, C. (2004). Türk mitolojisi-Ansiklopedik sözlük. E. Ercan (Çev.). Ankara: Yurt.

Bogatyrev, P. (1971). The function of folk costume in Moravian Slovakia. Paris: Mouton.

Boratav, P. N. (1969). Az gittik uz gittik. Bilgi.

Boratav, P. N. (1984). 100 soruda Türk folkloru. (2. bs.). İstanbul: Gerçek.

Çobanoğlu, Ö. (2015). Türk halk kültüründe memoratlar ve halk inançları. (2. bs.). Ankara: Akçağ.

Demir, N. (2013). Türk efsaneleri. İstanbul: Edge Akademi.

Dizdarlı, B. (2014). Kuyu mezarları ülkesi. Lefkoşa: Khora.

Dorson, R. M. (2011). Günümüz folklor kuramları. S. Gürçayır-Y. Özay (Çev.). (2. bs.). Ankara: Geleneksel.

Erdem, S. (1991). “Bâbil” maddesi. Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslam Ansiklopedisi, S. 4, ss. 392-395.

Ergin, M. (2018). Dede Korkut Kitabı I-II. (2. bs.). Ankara: TDK.

Gözükızıl, Ö. (2013). Çanakkale halk kültürü (I). Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi.

İnatçı, Ü. (2016). Kuyu / İç ve hiç. Kıbrıs Kültürel ve Bilimsel Araştırmalar Enstitüsü.

Jung, C. G. (2019). Dört arketip. Z. A. Yılmazer (Çev.). İstanbul: Metis.

Kara, R. (1993). Erzincan manileri. Erzincan Sosyal Yardımlaşma ve Dayanışma Vakfı.

Kâşgarlı M. (2013). Divanü Lûgat-it Türk. (Cilt I-II-III). B. Atalay (Çev.). Ankara: TDK.

Kilisli, R. B. (2001). Mâniler. A. Çatıkkaş (Haz.) İstanbul: MEB.

Kurtoğlu, M. (2008). Urfa efsaneleri. İl Kültür ve Turizm Müdürlüğü.

Levend, A. S. (2017). Divan edebiyatı: Kelimeler ve remizler, mazmun ve mefhumlar. (2. bs.). İstanbul: Dergâh.

Malinowski, B. (2016). Bilimsel bir kültür teorisi. D. Uludağ (Çev.). Ankara: Doğubatı. Meriç, N. (2019). Toplu öyküleri- II (4.Baskı). İstanbul: YKY.

Ögel, B. (1978). Türk kültür tarihine giriş-3. Ankara: Kültür Bakanlığı.

Özyürek, R. (1991). Mânilerimiz. Ankara: Hacettepe Üniversitesi.

Pakalın, M. Z. (1993). Osmanlı tarih deyimleri ve terimleri sözlüğü (Cilt II). İstanbul: MEB.

Pala, İ. (2015). Ansiklopedik divan şiiri sözlüğü. İstanbul: Kapı.

Poe, E. A. (2019). Kuyu ve sarkaç. C.N. Öztürk (Çev.). İstanbul: Karbon.

Roux, J.-P. (1994). Türklerin ve Moğolların eski dini. A. Kazancıgil (Çev.). İstanbul: İşaret.

Sakaoğlu, S. (1983). Kıbrıs Türk masalları. Ankara: Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı.

Şimşek, E. (2001). Yukarıçukurova masallarında motif ve tip araştırması (Cilt II). Ankara: Kültür Bakanlığı.

Thompson, S. (1955-1958). The motif-index of folk-literature (6 cilt). Indiana University.

Türk halk müziği sözlü eserler antolojisi-2 (2000). TRT Müzik Dairesi.

Elektronik kaynaklar

Balkaya, A. (2014). Halk anlatılarında kuyunun işlevselliği üzerine bir okuma. Milli Folklor, 102, 5364. [1]

Fjellström, P. (1974). The functions of folk costume in Moravian Slovakia by Petr Bogatyrev and Richard G. Crum. Anthropos, S. 69 (3/4), ss. 645-647. [2]

Halman, T. S. (1991). Bir kara derin kuyu by Nezihe Meriç: Sarı defter by Handan Saraç: Bu gece Pera’da by Jale Sancak. World Literature Today, S. 65 (1), ss. 183-184. [3]

İnce, A. (2007). “Kuyu cadısı” ve düşündürdükleri. TÜBAR, S. XXI, ss. 109-122. [4]

Karadağ, M. (2017). Ümit İnatçı “Kuyu”da ‘hiç’lik ve varoluşu sorguluyor. Lefkoşa Yeni Düzen gazetesi Gaile eki, ss. 407. [5]

Köktürk, Ş. (2006). Türk destanlarında hapsedilme motifi. TÜBAR S. XIX, ss. 383-400. [6]

Turan, M. O. (2013). Kuyu filmindeki arzu kavramının Lacancı psikanalitik yaklaşım çerçevesinde çözümlenmesi. Selçuk İletişim, S.7 (4), ss. 169-185. [7]

Yıldız, Ö. (2015). Osmanlı hapishaneleri üzerine bir değerlendirme: Karesi Hapishanesi örneği. Gazi Akademik Bakış, 9 (17), 91-111. [8]

Yüksel, A. A. (2016). Metin Erksan’ın Kuyu filminin mitolojiye dayalı bir perspektiften çözümlenmesi. Anadolu Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, S. 16 (4), ss. 129-134. [9]

https://tr.wikisource.org/w/index.php?title=%C4%B0%C5%9Flevselcilik_A%C3%A7%C4%B1s%C4%B1ndan_Kuyu_Motifinin_T%C3%BCrk_K%C3%BClt%C3%BCr%C3%BC,_Edebiyat%C4%B1_ve_Sinemas%C4%B1na_Yans%C4%B1malar%C4%B1&action=edit#editform